Jump to content
Sign in to follow this  
Followers 1
MSchwiebert

Pipe Cap Markers?

Recommended Posts

In my area (NW Ohio) it seems markers placed in the 1930's used discs, but early 20th century placements used pipe cap markers like in the photo.  Was there a preference to using these for one type of a mark over another, or was it just a change to the discs over time?

MD0380-PTS14-1-20181021.jpg

Share this post


Link to post

I don't know an exact answer, but in general pipe caps seem to have been popular in the later 1800's and first part of the 1900's, but much less common after 1930, at least around here.  YMMV.

There's a lot of information in this history, in which I didn't quickly find a succinct answer to your query.

https://www.ngs.noaa.gov/web/about_ngs/history/Survey_Mark_Art.pdf

Share this post


Link to post

All,

 

No definitive use dates, but Special Publication #18 (available on line somewhere) gives a description of this type of cap. 

 

C/P formatting not perfect!  kayakbird

 

SPECIAL PUBLICATION #18   PAGE 162  (168/334 IN GOOGLE)

DESCRIPTIONS OF BENCH MARKS:  GENERAL NOTES DESCRIBING DIFFERENT FORMS AND MARKING'S
 OF BENCH MARKS CONNECTED WITH THE LEVEL NET.

The notes in Precise Leveling in the United States, 1903-7, describing the various types of bench marks,
 have been reproduced in this publication, and the numbering has not been changed in any case . In order
 that the series may remain intact, some note are included in the list which refer to bench marks described
 only in previous publications. Observers should adhere to these notes in describing their bench marks and
 should use the corresponding numbers in their descriptions .

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

added note - MEL
SEE NOTE #48 FOR MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION BOLT & PIPE CAP COMBINATION
    AND #53 FOR MISSOURI RIVER COMMISSION TRIANGULATION STATION
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
NOTE 1.TENON DISK-This type of bench mark is the red metal disk designed by the Coast and
Geodetic Survey. lettered "U . S . Coast and Geodetic Survey. B . M . $250 fine or imprisonment
for disturbing this mark." The disk is 3 inches in diameter. with a 3-inch tenon upon the back
for setting it, and is set in cement flush with a horizontal or vertical surface. In the latter
case a horizontal mark cut on it, or the horizontal mark of a cross, is the bench mark.

 

NOTE 2. PIPE CAP-This type of bench mark has the same lettering as that referred to in note 1,
and is A 3-inch red metal cap, somewhat curved, screwed upon a 4-foot or 4 1/2-foot iron pipe
set in the ground and usually cemented at the base, from 4 to 6 inches being exposed above the
ground. The base of the pipe is split and spread to a diameter of about a foot . For placing
the foot of the level rod accurately a square or a small circle was cut in outline in the center of the cap.


NOTE 3.-This type of bench mark is A stone post 4 feet long set in the ground with 6 inches exposed,
and this portion is dressed. The upper surface is 6 inches square and plane, being marked in the center
with a 1/2-inch copper

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

PAGE 163

 

Edited by kayakbird

Share this post


Link to post

Pipe marks were common largely because they were very easy to prepare and set.  Concrete marks are heavier even if they are prefab and certainly require more time and resources when they were poured in place although they are way more stable.  Pipe marks were also very popular with US Government Land Office (USGLO) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Share this post


Link to post

Thanks everyone!  I kind of figured that it'd be easier to drive/set a section of pipe - but hadn't thought about it being less stable than concrete. 

Share this post


Link to post

Since you asked ^_^, here's a breakdown of pipe cap benchmarks by year monumented:

 

 1872   |     2
 1880   |     2
 1881   |     1
 1882   |     1
 1885   |     4
 1889   |    22
 1891   |     4
 1892   |    19
 1894   |     3
 1895   |     7
 1896   |    45
 1897   |    77
 1898   |   127
 1899   |    55
 1900   |    64
 1901   |    66
 1902   |    77
 1903   |   215
 1904   |   122
 1905   |   206
 1906   |   145
 1907   |   155
 1908   |   196
 1909   |   102
 1910   |   155
 1911   |   205
 1912   |   101
 1913   |   149
 1914   |    90
 1915   |   134
 1916   |    94
 1917   |   133
 1918   |   192
 1919   |    77
 1920   |    54
 1921   |    30
 1922   |    40
 1923   |    27
 1924   |    65
 1925   |    44
 1926   |    11
 1927   |     9
 1928   |    12
 1929   |    39
 1930   |    46
 1931   |    60
 1932   |    11
 1933   |    39
 1934   |    98
 1935   |    64
 1936   |    28
 1937   |    53
 1938   |    20
 1939   |    30
 1940   |     9
 1941   |    32
 1942   |    15
 1943   |    25
 1944   |    34
 1945   |    29
 1946   |    21
 1947   |    32
 1948   |    68
 1949   |    32
 1950   |    33
 1951   |    14
 1952   |    15
 1953   |    36
 1954   |    42
 1955   |    22
 1956   |    28
 1957   |    62
 1958   |    13
 1959   |    29
 1960   |    11
 1961   |    24
 1962   |    27
 1963   |    23
 1964   |    15
 1965   |    33
 1966   |    43
 1967   |    22
 1968   |    11
 1969   |     7
 1970   |    27
 1971   |     7
 1972   |     6
 1973   |    12
 1974   |    21
 1975   |    20
 1976   |     9
 1977   |    28
 1978   |    60
 1979   |    12
 1980   |     4
 1981   |    51
 1982   |     2
 1983   |     3
 1984   |     2
 1985   |     3
 1986   |    42
 1987   |    22
 1988   |   152
 1989   |    12
 1990   |    32
 1992   |    29
 1993   |     7
 1994   |     7
 1995   |     8
 1996   |    12
 1997   |     2
 1998   |    24
 1999   |     3
 2000   |     5
 2001   |     3
 2003   |     2
 2005   |     5
 2008   |     1
 2009   |     1
 2014   |     7
 2015   |     3
 

Share this post


Link to post

207fa8bd-12f5-4226-aad0-b5c517702c27.jpgforbin_c, All,

 

Wondering if those totals equate to the ones set, or just those than now have a PID?

 

Looking at Special Publication #18 for the first string set in Montana in 1907 [G3 thru Z3 - portion of the Butte to Huntley Precise Level Net run that year ] I see that 8 of the twenty monuments set were Pipe Caps, but only four have a PID in my GSAK file.

 

Found my first of this type on a winter day west of Bozeman, Montana.  kayakbird

 

https://www.geocaching.com/mark/details.aspx?PID=QX0214

 

 

 

 

 

Edited by kayakbird
Delete extra word, direct link photo

Share this post


Link to post

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now
Sign in to follow this  
Followers 1

×