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"...referenced, removed and replaced ..."


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No answers were offered in the Waymarking.com forum.

It was suggested that this question be cross-posted here.



In the description of a PLSS corner, exactly what does "referenced" mean when a surveyor writes --

"Referenced, removed and replaced 5/8" iron rod with 2" diameter iron pipe 24" long with 3-1/4" brass cap ..."


Does it simply mean that the bearings and distances from the iron rod to pre-existing bearing trees are re-measured?

What if there are discrepancies between previous surveys and the present one?

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A typical practice would be to set 2 to 4 nails each 2 feet from the point (more distance if that isn't enough working room), remove the old marker, and place the new marker to match the 2 ft distances. That is usually more accurate than measuring from a greater distance. With care, the new marker should be within 0.005 ft (1/16") of the old one.

This procedure shouldn't cause any discrepancies.


If there are differences between old and new surveys, then professional judgment based on all the evidence comes into play. Ideally, the two surveyors should discuss why they got different results and see if they can come to agreement.

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It means he laid out some reference points (nails, wood stakes etc) so he could replace back in the same spot. There are many ways it could be done but typically when possible one would place 2 or more points in a straight line far enough away so they won't be disturbed and measure the distances between them or set them at exact distances. Could also use a string line and plumb bob, chalk lines on pavement etc.






X - temp ref points

o - corner to be replaced

<-----> - measured distance

Edited by Z15
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