Jump to content

Why so few minority geocachers?


geocat_
Followers 8

Recommended Posts

I love the hobby of Geocaching and have also enjoyed meeting others with the same passion. Over the past couple years since I started caching, I have continued to notice a phenomenon. Geocachers are almost exclusively white. I say this after attending over 20 local events and 3 mega events and observing thousands of cachers. I have probably "observed" hundreds more in pictures or through Facebook groups about geocaching.

 

So my question is WHY???? I live in an urban area in Ohio, among a fairly diverse population. There are many, many middle-class people of all races living near me. There are a great number in technical fields such as computer science and engineering who work very close to where I live (I mention those fields only because it seems that I have met many cachers who have backgrounds in those fields).

 

Any theories? It seems odd to me that it is such a "white" hobby huh.gif

Link to comment

I do agree with you and have asked this question before, but Geocaching is not much different than other hobbies...like mountain climbing, hunting, sport fishing, backpacking, etc, its the same demographic mix as those hobbies so I think its more of a technological outdoorsy thing in general.

 

That said, if I had to ask why all these outdoor techy hobbies are that way, I do not know. Income could play a part of it, one has to buy a GPS and other gadgets to geocache.

Edited by lamoracke
Link to comment

I could probably speculate about a number of factors ranging from cultural differences to practical matters -- including that I have cached in areas where people might have called the police about an African American poking around the bushes in their neighborhood. But I have also done a few caches where an old white guy poking around an African American neighborhood looked equally suspicious. African American and Hispanic friends have told me that certain types of caches seem like fun but it has not gone beyond that.

 

But rather than speculating it would be interesting if a non-white cacher could offer some thoughts.

Edited by geodarts
Link to comment

I haven't a clue why, but I have noticed it too. Mr Incredible felt a bit awkward being the only Chinese person at our least event. I think maybe there was only 1 other non-white person there. :unsure:

 

One thing I have noticed also is when we go camping it's mostly whites too. Just thinking about the Chinese friends we have right now and we know quite a few families. They are very focussed right now on working and making money so they can retire comfortably. The don't put as much emphasis on leisure activities as we do. Several of our friends work 7 days a week.

 

One other thing is the Chinese I know don't have much experience in the outdoors. Mr Incredible grew up in a huge city. He is terrified of cougars and bears and really had no experience hiking until I started dragging him along. I took my Chinese friend and daughter geocaching the other day and they had no idea that one of the major parks in our city even existed. They were quite surprised it was there! The limited leisure time they have they go to the swimming pool, because they grew up in a big city and going to the pool was a popular activity.

Edited by The_Incredibles_
Link to comment

I love the hobby of Geocaching and have also enjoyed meeting others with the same passion. Over the past couple years since I started caching, I have continued to notice a phenomenon. Geocachers are almost exclusively white. I say this after attending over 20 local events and 3 mega events and observing thousands of cachers. I have probably "observed" hundreds more in pictures or through Facebook groups about geocaching.

 

So my question is WHY???? I live in an urban area in Ohio, among a fairly diverse population. There are many, many middle-class people of all races living near me. There are a great number in technical fields such as computer science and engineering who work very close to where I live (I mention those fields only because it seems that I have met many cachers who have backgrounds in those fields).

 

Any theories? It seems odd to me that it is such a "white" hobby huh.gif

 

Its been a little over a year since this topic came up last. Have you seen this thread yet? http://forums.Groundspeak.com/GC/index.php?showtopic=278550&st=0&p=4787349&hl=racial&fromsearch=1entry4787349

 

:P

Link to comment

I love the hobby of Geocaching and have also enjoyed meeting others with the same passion. Over the past couple years since I started caching, I have continued to notice a phenomenon. Geocachers are almost exclusively white. I say this after attending over 20 local events and 3 mega events and observing thousands of cachers. I have probably "observed" hundreds more in pictures or through Facebook groups about geocaching.

 

So my question is WHY???? I live in an urban area in Ohio, among a fairly diverse population. There are many, many middle-class people of all races living near me. There are a great number in technical fields such as computer science and engineering who work very close to where I live (I mention those fields only because it seems that I have met many cachers who have backgrounds in those fields).

 

Any theories? It seems odd to me that it is such a "white" hobby huh.gif

 

Its been a little over a year since this topic came up last. Have you seen this thread yet? http://forums.Groundspeak.com/GC/index.php?showtopic=278550&st=0&p=4787349&hl=racial&fromsearch=1entry4787349

 

:P

Yeah, and I suppose if this thread goes down the same lines it is okay. But unfortunately I think the ones that could answer the question don't participate. Ham radio is another past time that is largely white.

Link to comment

I love the hobby of Geocaching and have also enjoyed meeting others with the same passion. Over the past couple years since I started caching, I have continued to notice a phenomenon. Geocachers are almost exclusively white. I say this after attending over 20 local events and 3 mega events and observing thousands of cachers. I have probably "observed" hundreds more in pictures or through Facebook groups about geocaching.

 

So my question is WHY???? I live in an urban area in Ohio, among a fairly diverse population. There are many, many middle-class people of all races living near me. There are a great number in technical fields such as computer science and engineering who work very close to where I live (I mention those fields only because it seems that I have met many cachers who have backgrounds in those fields).

 

Any theories? It seems odd to me that it is such a "white" hobby huh.gif

 

Its been a little over a year since this topic came up last. Have you seen this thread yet? http://forums.Groundspeak.com/GC/index.php?showtopic=278550&st=0&p=4787349&hl=racial&fromsearch=1entry4787349

 

:P

 

:laughing:

 

I thought it was elephants that never forget, not dogs.

 

 

B.

Link to comment

Much of my caching is done with, an African American cacher who grew up in the segregated south and still lives in her home town where she sat in the balcony of the theater, wasn’t allowed to swim at the local pool, and went to a separate school. There have been a few occasions where we were stopped, questioned, or not treated well which we both interpreted was due to her color. This is despite the fact we are “careful” as to where and when we cache. We do not cache before or after dark. We don’t do much urban/neighborhood caching; but prefer to stick to back roads, parks, and forested areas. If we approach a cache location and see a confederate flag flying we drive by. Still those few times we have perceived racism it has really put a damper on the day to say the least. I know there are places I have cached when alone I would not stop at if she were with me. It’s sad but true.

Link to comment

Worth a look: Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2012. Page 44 shows a greater overall outdoor participation rate by Caucasians than by other ethnicities. Page 45 shows that African Americans aren't keen on hiking in particular. The stats are significant, but not so extreme as experienced here in geocaching.

 

If Obama gets kicked out of the White House then perhaps he should run for president of gc.com instead :)

Link to comment

 

One thing I have noticed also is when we go camping it's mostly whites too. Just thinking about the Chinese friends we have right now and we know quite a few families. They are very focussed right now on working and making money so they can retire comfortably. The don't put as much emphasis on leisure activities as we do. Several of our friends work 7 days a week.

 

 

G'day the last statement is very true, I have many Asian friends and grew up in Vancouver / Richmond and they are very focused on making money when they are young so they can retire early and in comfort is what they told me.

Link to comment

So for almost all the response look like they're coming from a U.S. perspective. Geocaching *is* an international game with players that may be in the minority in the U.S. but are not in other countries. Go caching in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America and Caucasian geocachers will be in the minority. I doubt that race has anything to do with the number of caches in many African countries but the first time I visited Tanzania, once I left the airport I didn't see another white person for two days.

Link to comment

So for almost all the response look like they're coming from a U.S. perspective. Geocaching *is* an international game with players that may be in the minority in the U.S. but are not in other countries. Go caching in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America and Caucasian geocachers will be in the minority. I doubt that race has anything to do with the number of caches in many African countries but the first time I visited Tanzania, once I left the airport I didn't see another white person for two days.

 

Bingo.

 

I think the real question is why there are so few Russians.

Link to comment

So for almost all the response look like they're coming from a U.S. perspective. Geocaching *is* an international game with players that may be in the minority in the U.S. but are not in other countries. Go caching in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America and Caucasian geocachers will be in the minority. I doubt that race has anything to do with the number of caches in many African countries but the first time I visited Tanzania, once I left the airport I didn't see another white person for two days.

 

I have not geocached abroad, except for Mexico, and if I'm not mistaken, you have, so I'm not arguing against your own personal experience, but a quick gander at a couple of African geocaches does not appear to support the claim that Caucasian cachers will be in the minority:

 

http://coord.info/GC17RWC, Rwanda, Africa.

 

73e2709f-35b6-41e8-9153-96258259af68.jpg

 

c4a1968f-8f98-41f6-944d-2256fe8ff4f1.jpg

 

200a63f1-b687-4f79-9e60-d30fb6f2ac9e.jpg

 

0095963e-6d0b-4ee9-8ae5-443b6281eff3.jpg

 

From http://coord.info/GC10MTV in Uganda, Africa

3d46134b-2b1d-40d6-8aa6-d22a98163702.jpg

 

http://coord.info/GC3439V, in Angola

a94976e0-1ce6-4af3-b45e-41263aa1f405.jpg

 

http://coord.info/GC7362, Kenya

4fcf216e-faba-41ab-ad2a-10e0b92ba9f0.jpg

 

http://coord.info/GCXMQ9, Zambia

6c086309-313d-4db3-8a7d-d80ca5b9e89b.jpg

Link to comment

We do not cache before or after dark.

That doesn't leave much time to go caching. :laughing:

 

You have a point there.

Opps, what I meant was we only cache during daylight hours. No predawn or night caching; but I suspect you knew that :rolleyes:

Some of the time I do caching after midnight. Of course it depends on the neighborhood I'm in

Link to comment

I met one cacher on a FTF and we went out and found some of the other caches on that trail. I told him we should go find some more some time as it was fun to have someone to help with some of the more difficult ones like we were looking for that day. He agreed and said that most of the other cachers were older and a different kind of nerd then he was. I think he was classifying most cachers as nerds. (I know not all cachers are nerds) So maybe most of us are just to white and nerdy.

Here though we have many other races that find our caches and some women also. I do sometimes wonder why on my phone if I look back threw the logs it almost always shows jellis as the FTF? Sometimes I don't think she was FTF but she shows up as the last log I see. Pretty cool!

-WarNinjas

Link to comment

I met one cacher on a FTF and we went out and found some of the other caches on that trail. I told him we should go find some more some time as it was fun to have someone to help with some of the more difficult ones like we were looking for that day. He agreed and said that most of the other cachers were older and a different kind of nerd then he was. I think he was classifying most cachers as nerds. (I know not all cachers are nerds) So maybe most of us are just to white and nerdy.

Here though we have many other races that find our caches and some women also. I do sometimes wonder why on my phone if I look back threw the logs it almost always shows jellis as the FTF? Sometimes I don't think she was FTF but she shows up as the last log I see. Pretty cool!

-WarNinjas

Thank you.

You are coming to the 75K Find event right?

Link to comment

Worth a look: Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2012. Page 44 shows a greater overall outdoor participation rate by Caucasians than by other ethnicities. Page 45 shows that African Americans aren't keen on hiking in particular. The stats are significant, but not so extreme as experienced here in geocaching.

 

 

We thru hiked the Appallachian Trail in 1999 for over 5 months. We only recall 2 African Americans.

 

Edit: OOPS Just reminded that one of them was actually Sri Lankan

Edited by Ma & Pa
Link to comment

I am a bit sad to read, people actually act after what others think is good or smart or normal ?

not to draw attention ?

or not to get into trouble ?

not to upset others ?

 

just too bad, why cant we all go out and play,

any where, any time

that is something we should work to solve..

 

I must say I once refused to seek for a cache,

actually I refused to drive down the road there,

it spooked me out that road in FL USA,

the people we saw there did not look like they welcome me or my family in their area,

they also looked like they where up to no good.

 

Maybe it is me ??? what is wrong with me ??

Link to comment

So for almost all the response look like they're coming from a U.S. perspective. Geocaching *is* an international game with players that may be in the minority in the U.S. but are not in other countries. Go caching in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America and Caucasian geocachers will be in the minority. I doubt that race has anything to do with the number of caches in many African countries but the first time I visited Tanzania, once I left the airport I didn't see another white person for two days.

 

I have not geocached abroad, except for Mexico, and if I'm not mistaken, you have, so I'm not arguing against your own personal experience, but a quick gander at a couple of African geocaches does not appear to support the claim that Caucasian cachers will be in the minority:...

 

 

I don't think any of the people in those photos are cache owners, and I wouldn't be surprised if nearly all of them are from Europe or the U.S.

 

I've looked at a those cache listings for the ones in Rwanda. We've done some work with a library in Kigali (my manager has been there twice) so there's a slightly greater than zero chance that I might have an opportunity some day to find those caches in Rwanda and possibly the one in Uganda as well. The one in Kenya looks amazing. I've been on the ground in Kenya three times but never outside that airport.

 

So far, the only other geocachers I've met while traveling abroad were in Rome (and they were from Germany) and a *lot* of others while at an event in Zurich (I don't recall seeing any minorities there).

Link to comment

The only geocacher we met in Japan was white, but I don't think he's very representative of the local caching demographic.

 

Then again, in Japan we were the minority, and we were geocaching, so...there you go. And although we were not in a racial minority, but a national origin minority (also a protected class under US civil rights law), we were most times the only Americans at events in Germany.

 

So, those are my experiences as a minority geocacher.

Link to comment

I am a bit sad to read, people actually act after what others think is good or smart or normal ?

not to draw attention ?

or not to get into trouble ?

not to upset others ?

 

just too bad, why cant we all go out and play,

any where, any time

that is something we should work to solve..

 

I must say I once refused to seek for a cache,

actually I refused to drive down the road there,

it spooked me out that road in FL USA,

the people we saw there did not look like they welcome me or my family in their area,

they also looked like they where up to no good.

 

Maybe it is me ??? what is wrong with me ??

 

Don't think anyone has posted anything racist or derogatory here. Not saying we can't all "just get along" by pointing out an observation.

Link to comment

I met one cacher on a FTF and we went out and found some of the other caches on that trail. I told him we should go find some more some time as it was fun to have someone to help with some of the more difficult ones like we were looking for that day. He agreed and said that most of the other cachers were older and a different kind of nerd then he was. I think he was classifying most cachers as nerds. (I know not all cachers are nerds) So maybe most of us are just to white and nerdy.

Here though we have many other races that find our caches and some women also. I do sometimes wonder why on my phone if I look back threw the logs it almost always shows jellis as the FTF? Sometimes I don't think she was FTF but she shows up as the last log I see. Pretty cool!

-WarNinjas

Thank you.

You are coming to the 75K Find event right?

When is that? Where is it?

Link to comment

I met one cacher on a FTF and we went out and found some of the other caches on that trail. I told him we should go find some more some time as it was fun to have someone to help with some of the more difficult ones like we were looking for that day. He agreed and said that most of the other cachers were older and a different kind of nerd then he was. I think he was classifying most cachers as nerds. (I know not all cachers are nerds) So maybe most of us are just to white and nerdy.

Here though we have many other races that find our caches and some women also. I do sometimes wonder why on my phone if I look back threw the logs it almost always shows jellis as the FTF? Sometimes I don't think she was FTF but she shows up as the last log I see. Pretty cool!

-WarNinjas

Thank you.

You are coming to the 75K Find event right?

When is that? Where is it?

sending it to you via email

Link to comment

I've noticed this as well. But I'd like to point out-doesn't the fact that they(Blacks, Russians, Chinese, whatever) are minorities mean(in theory at least) there will be less of them anywhere? Geocaching, Hockey, Paintball, Ham radio? after all if there where more of them then us wouldn't that make us the minorities? or am I just confusing everyone :huh:

Link to comment

I am a bit sad to read, people actually act after what others think is good or smart or normal ? not to draw attention ? or not to get into trouble ? not to upset others ?

 

just too bad, why cant we all go out and play, any where, any time that is something we should work to solve..

 

I must say I once refused to seek for a cache, actually I refused to drive down the road there, it spooked me out that road in FL USA, the people we saw there did not look like they welcome me or my family in their area, they also looked like they where up to no good.

 

Maybe it is me ??? what is wrong with me ??

 

Sounds like profiling to me.

Link to comment

 

Sounds like profiling to me.

 

People 'profile' each other all the time.

Every minute of every day.

 

Is that guy coming towards me going to be friendly, or is he some kind of maniac? :unsure:

 

Unfortunately, all any of us has to go on is our own personal experiences, and 'what we have heard'.

 

I would dearly love to believe all men are my brothers, but I really don't want to get beaten up for straying into the wrong territory where the locals just don't care, and will take any opportunity to teach me a lesson about my forebears' indiscretions.

 

In any case, the local geocacher population seems to be mostly Caucasian.

Link to comment

 

Sounds like profiling to me.

 

People 'profile' each other all the time.

Every minute of every day.

 

Is that guy coming towards me going to be friendly, or is he some kind of maniac? :unsure:

 

Unfortunately, all any of us has to go on is our own personal experiences, and 'what we have heard'.

 

I would dearly love to believe all men are my brothers, but I really don't want to get beaten up for straying into the wrong territory where the locals just don't care, and will take any opportunity to teach me a lesson about my forebears' indiscretions.

 

In any case, the local geocacher population seems to be mostly Caucasian.

 

Very well put. We all make judgements about a person or situation constantly. There is nothing wrong with that.

 

Why so few minorities in caching? First off I do not know if this is indeed factual. Secondly everyone is invited to play. So if there are few then it boils down to either choice or oportunity.

Link to comment

I've noticed this as well. But I'd like to point out-doesn't the fact that they(Blacks, Russians, Chinese, whatever) are minorities mean(in theory at least) there will be less of them anywhere? Geocaching, Hockey, Paintball, Ham radio? after all if there where more of them then us wouldn't that make us the minorities? or am I just confusing everyone :huh:

 

When I used to go carp fishing on the local riverbank, I was usually the only Caucasian there.

Link to comment

Worth a look: Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2012. Page 44 shows a greater overall outdoor participation rate by Caucasians than by other ethnicities. Page 45 shows that African Americans aren't keen on hiking in particular. The stats are significant, but not so extreme as experienced here in geocaching.

 

 

We thru hiked the Appallachian Trail in 1999 for over 5 months. We only recall 2 African Americans.

 

Edit: OOPS Just reminded that one of them was actually Sri Lankan

 

True, I rarely see blacks hiking and I hike a lot of trails that are within an hours drive of a significant black middle class population. I recall mentioning backpacking and hiking to one black colleague and he said "No way, I like the concrete under my feet". Of course one person is not representative, but perhaps there is a perception that geocaching is only done in the backcountry and, at least in the northeast, most blacks grew up in cities and have no connection to the woods, therefore no interest in visiting them.

Link to comment

Much of my caching is done with, an African American cacher who grew up in the segregated south and still lives in her home town where she sat in the balcony of the theater, wasn’t allowed to swim at the local pool, and went to a separate school. There have been a few occasions where we were stopped, questioned, or not treated well which we both interpreted was due to her color. This is despite the fact we are “careful” as to where and when we cache. We do not cache before or after dark. We don’t do much urban/neighborhood caching; but prefer to stick to back roads, parks, and forested areas. If we approach a cache location and see a confederate flag flying we drive by. Still those few times we have perceived racism it has really put a damper on the day to say the least. I know there are places I have cached when alone I would not stop at if she were with me. It’s sad but true.

 

Ugh, that makes me nuts that she had to go through all of that. And it makes me nuts that you and she still have to be "careful". Come cache with me, I've never come across a confederate flag!

Link to comment

 

True, I rarely see blacks hiking and I hike a lot of trails that are within an hours drive of a significant black middle class population. I recall mentioning backpacking and hiking to one black colleague and he said "No way, I like the concrete under my feet". Of course one person is not representative, but perhaps there is a perception that geocaching is only done in the backcountry and, at least in the northeast, most blacks grew up in cities and have no connection to the woods, therefore no interest in visiting them.

 

Here are a bunch of maybes. I have no stats.

 

Maybe hiking and backpacking and geocaching is a middle class hobby (i.e. people who can afford it).

Maybe there are more caucasians in the middle class.

Maybe whites living in similar areas to the blacks also dont do any of that.

Edited by Ma & Pa
Link to comment

Let's be frank here. Geocaching can bring minorities into areas where they may not necessarily be welcome. This perception may or may not be justified, but before you get indignant, it's not like most of you are placing your urban micros in their neighborhoods either. I often venture from the big city into pickup truck country when I geocache. I haven't had any trouble, but then I'm a fairly light-skinned minority, though my car does stick out because of those sweet rims and hydraulics. No, seriously, it's just a regular red sports car, but it still sticks out. I've been spending a lot of caching time lately in a neighboring very rural county. Everyone, cachers, park personnel, etc. has been friendly, but I'm also aware the county is a hotbed of neo-Nazi activity, a prominent leader of which was the former county sheriff, and so I keep my eyes open, just as you would in an urban neighborhood.

Link to comment

Why do we care about whether or not a certain group of people do not engage in geocaching??

 

A discussion like this only promotes us to make assumptions of why - which often includes stereotyping. Stereotyping is a form of being pre-judgemental.

 

So, instead of making assumptions.... Get out there and introduce the hobby to some new folks (minorities or not). Everything else is better left unknown.

Link to comment

It seems there's plenty of research on the subject of ethnic variation in outdoors pursuits.

 

For example (link) ...

 

Research has been conducted to explore potential reasons for underrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities in national parks, identify barriers to visitation among racial/ethnic minorities, and understand differences in recreation choices and preferences between people of color and Whites (Dwyer and Hutchison, 1990; Dwyer and Gobster, 1992; Dwyer, 1993; Hutchison, 1987; Johnson, Bowker, and Cordell, 2001; Payne, Mowen, and Orsega-Smith, 2002; Tinsely, Tinsley, and Croskeys, 2002; West, 1989). This body of research has led to the development of four hypotheses or theories to help explain racial/ethnic minority underrepresentation in outdoor recreation, including attendance at national parks (Floyd, 1999; Gomez, 2002; Johnson, Bowker, English, and Worthen, 1998). These hypotheses are:
 
  • Marginality: The marginality hypothesis attributes differences in racial/ethnic minority representation to socioeconomic factors or measures of social class, such as limited financial resources, lower levels of education, and limited employment opportunities caused by historical discrimination. (Floyd, 1998; Floyd, Shinew, McGuire, and Noe, 1994; Dwyer and Hutchison, 1990; Lindsay and Ogle, 1972; Washburne, 1978; Woodward, 1988)
     
  • Subcultuel/Ethnicity: The subculture/ethnicity hypothesis recognizes the influence of marginality on leisure and recreation patterns but attributes differences in national park visitation at least partially to cultural norms, value systems, social organizations, and socialization practices. Examples of cultural values or norms can include size of recreational groups, preferred activities (e.g., hiking, biking, swimming, picnicking), and development level of sites (e.g., bathrooms, pavilions, visitor centers). (Chavez, 2000; Dwyer and Hutchison, 1990; Dwyer and Gobster, 1992; Dwyer, 1993; Floyd, 1999; Gobster, 2002; Washburne, 1978)
     
  • Discrimination: The discrimination hypothesis places importance on contemporary, post civil rights discrimination that occurs from interpersonal contact with other visitors or park personnel or through institutional policies. (Blahna and Black, 1993; Floyd, 1999; Gobster and Delgado, 1992; Roberts, 2007)
     
  • Opportunity: The opportunity hypothesis examines the relationship between the residential location of minority populations, recreational sites, and recreation preferences. (Hauser, 1962; Lindsay and Ogle, 1972; O’Leary and Benjamin, 1982; Payne, Mowen, and Orsega-Smith, 2002)
     
  • Acculturation: The acculturation hypothesis examines the relationship between cultural assimilation into the majority culture and recreational choices. According to this hypothesis, as a minority culture assimilates into the majority culture, they begin to take on the recreational patterns of the majority culture. (Floyd, 1999)

Research has also examined potential barriers to visitation by minority racial and ethnic groups (Payne, Mowen, and Orsega-Smith, 2002; Solop, Hagen, and Ostergren, 2003; Tinsley, Tinsley, and Croskeys, 2002). These barriers can include:

 

  • Transportation: Ability to get to a national park or natural recreation site.
     
  • Knowledge: Lack of knowledge about where parks are located and what activities parks offer.
     
  • Expense: Both the internal cost of visiting a park (entrance fees) and the external cost of visiting a park (lodging, transportation, food, etc.).
     
  • Interpretation and History: Lack of interpretation in parks relating to minority history and culture.

 

So when the OP asks, "Any theories?", well, there's your reading list for the great outdoors.

(Can't help you when it comes to LPCs though!)

Edited by I!
Link to comment

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

Loading...
Followers 8
×
×
  • Create New...