# Waterfall Earthcache

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Hello all!

I'm trying to develop a waterfall earthcache for a location by my town. I have the historical information about the area, but I need help developing the "educational" task for this area. All there is, is a trail head that will take you to three different falls within 2 1/2 miles.

Thanks,

Wes

Hello all!

I'm trying to develop a waterfall earthcache for a location by my town. I have the historical information about the area, but I need help developing the "educational" task for this area. All there is, is a trail head that will take you to three different falls within 2 1/2 miles.

Thanks,

Wes

Height, Width, erosional cutback rate, have them go in the fall and spring and compare size, have them do a force calc for the flow rate. Do the falls have a split, if so which has the largest flow. if possible, what caused the falls to be formed where they are?

Ask about what type of fall it is. Horsetail, plunge, etc. How far is the water traveling from the top of the falls to the bottom? Is it a wet weather fall (temperate) or continuous? Just some suggestions.

You can make ECs of all three as well.

Hello all!

I'm trying to develop a waterfall earthcache for a location by my town. I have the historical information about the area, but I need help developing the "educational" task for this area. All there is, is a trail head that will take you to three different falls within 2 1/2 miles.

Thanks,

Wes

Use the 10 Classes of waterfalls.

1 Block: Water descends from a relatively wide stream or river.

2 Cascade: Water descends a series of rock steps.

3 Cataract: A large waterfall.

4 Fan: Water spreads horizontally as it descends while remaining in contact with bedrock.

5 Horsetail: Descending water maintains some contact with bedrock.

6 Plunge: Water descends vertically, losing contact with the bedrock surface.

7 Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form, then spreads out in a wider pool.

8 Segmented: Distinctly separate flows of water form as it descends.

9 Tiered:Water drops in a series of distinct steps or falls.

10 Multi-step: A series of waterfalls one after another of roughly the same size each with its own sunken plunge pool.

Thank you all! I think I'll use the 10 classes of waterfall as two of them are very different types!

Thanks again!

Here is one that sounds like it's very similar GC1ATHZ

Thanks - I'm thinking of doign a waterfall cache soon too. A tall set falling over a dolorite sill.

So looking at gorge, cutback, plunge pool etc.

Here's a Tufa Waterfall cache in South Africa that may give some ideas too:

GC17G9D

Here is the text from one I developed that one of the land owners changed his mind about at the last minute.

Might give you some ideas for waterfall type requirements.

Asbury Woods:

Located in Millcreek Township in Erie County, PA, Asbury Woods is a 200-acre tract of wetlands, trails, forests, streams, fields and historic properties. With five distinct natural and recreational areas – Asbury Woods Nature Center, Asbury Community Park, Brown’s Farm, Greenway Trail and James Wildlife Preserve – Asbury Woods is one of the premier environmental centers in northwestern Pennsylvania, providing educational and recreational opportunities to more than 130,000 visitors annually.

Asbury Wood’s activities and programs are as diverse as its natural habitats - from hiking and mountain biking in the summer to cross-country skiing and snowshoeing in the winter. Each year, Asbury Woods hosts more than 90 different public programs, such as nature camps, themed hikes, gardening classes and barn dances. In addition, annual events such as the Maple Syrup Festival, AutumnFest and Winter Wonderland attract individuals and families of all ages.

Walnut Creek:

As with most of northern Erie County, Walnut Creek is part of the Lake Erie watershed, while water falling in most of southern Erie County drains into the French Creek Watershed, which feeds into the Allegheny, which helps form the Ohio and ultimately the Mississippi River. The Walnut Creek watershed was formed more than 12,000 years ago when an ice lobe, occupying the present-day Lake Erie basin, stopped the northward flow of a glacial stream. The stream was forced to flow west until it traveled past the ice lobe and was able to proceed north again. That is why there are no tributaries entering Walnut Creek from the north. The Walnut Creek watershed encompasses 24,320 acres (38 square miles). Walnut Creek is about 22 miles long and has a total length, including tributaries, of 42 miles.

This earthcache will focus on two features of Walnut Creek, a fluvial hanging valley and the resulting waterfall:

Hanging valleys are a side valley that enters a main valley at an elevation higher than the main valley floor. Hanging valleys are typically formed when the main valley has been widened and deepened by glacial erosion, leaving the side valley cut off abruptly from the main valley below. They can also form when the downcutting of the main river or stream erodes the underlying rock at a much faster rate than does the feeder stream. This is then called a fluvial hanging valley and it is the case in the example you will see here. The drop from the hanging valley to the main valley floor usually creates a waterfall if the feeder stream is still active. A waterfall is formed whenever water drops vertically, either over a cliff or down a steep slope. How far it must drop, or how steep the slope in order to be classified a waterfall is often debated but ultimately left up to the observer. There are many different types of waterfalls and often one will fit into more than one category.

Types of Waterfalls:

Waterfalls that remain in contact with the underlying rock:

Cascade: Generally water that flows down in small steps or stages.

Chute: A violent section of water that is forced through a narrow passage due to cliff walls or large rocks.

Fan: Falls through a relatively narrow crest and spreads out and becomes wider as it descends.

Horsetail: Descends down remaining in contact with the surface most of the time.

Scree/Talus: Flowing over a chaotic mix of rock debris on a slope usually found at the base of a cliff or steep incline.

Slide: Glides over a single slab of rock maintaining smooth continuous contact.

Waterfalls that separate from the underlying rock:

Block/Sheet: Drops over a ledge forming what appears to be a "sheet" of water - usually not broken into segments and it is wider than it is tall.

Cataract: Waterfall that is large, very powerful and rushes down with force.

Classical: Similar to Block, but roughly equal in height and width

Curtain: Similar to Block, but typically taller than wide.

Plunge: Descends vertically without contacting the underlying surface.

Punchbowl: Falls through a constricted area and descends down into a pool of water.

Veil: Falls over rocks creating a thin layer of water that just barely covers it's surface.

Other Descriptive Types:

Parallel: Falls are side-by-side and fall similar to each other.

Ribbon: Descends in a narrow strip significantly taller than it is wide.

Segmented: Pieces of land segment the river (same watercourse) causing the water to fall in sections.

Slot/Keyhole: Pushes through a narrow area before falling.

Tiered: Separate waterfalls falling consecutively and in close proximity so generally they can be seen together. Any type of falls can be tiered.

Twin: Side-by-side but do not have to be similar in type. (Triple and more can exist as well)

Directions:

You will begin by parking in the Brown's Farm parking lot (Parking area waypoint) off of Sterrettania Road. From there walk past the gate into the field and proceed to the trailhead (trailhead waypoint) where you will enter the woods. From there you will navigate a series of trails along which you will pass by the waterfall (Top of waterfall waypoint) from above. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO ENTER THE CREEK BED HERE... YOU WILL GET HURT. From there you will follow the trails for just over a tenth of a mile until you reach a safe place (Enter Walnut Creek waypoint) to enter the creekbed. From here you will follow the creek back upstream to the bottom of waterfall.

Rules:

Trails are open daylight hours only.

Bikes and pets on a leash are permitted on identified Greenway trails on the west side of Asbury Road to Brown’s Farm on Sterrettania Road.

Bikes yield to pedestrians.

Overnight camping, campfires, motorized vehicles, alcohol, smoking, hunting and paint ball guns are prohibited.

To claim this as a find:

1. Take a photo of you and your GPS at the posted coordinates with the waterfall in the background.

2. Estimate the height of the waterfall.

3. Using the provided information on types of waterfalls determine what type this one is.

4. Since the flow of this creek varies greatly over the seasons, your task here is to use your log to describe, in your own terminology, the amount of water flowing over the falls at the time of your visit along with a quick description of the current weather conditions.

E-mail the answers to numbers 2,3 to me, include the answer to number 4 in your online log, and post the photo (number 1) within a few days of your log.

Failure to comply with these requirements will result in log deletion.

Wow! I wish I knew the landowner, I'd try to get him to change his mind!

Wow! I wish I knew the landowner, I'd try to get him to change his mind!

Highly unlikely but next time you are in the Erie area send me an eamil and I can give you the location since he "does not mind people coming to the location" but will not allow it to be listed on the internet.

- Rev Mike

Wow! I wish I knew the landowner, I'd try to get him to change his mind!

Highly unlikely but next time you are in the Erie area send me an eamil and I can give you the location since he "does not mind people coming to the location" but will not allow it to be listed on the internet.

- Rev Mike

This might be a case for a member only cache. That would limit the people that could see the coordinates. Would that change the mind of the owner?

This might be a case for a member only cache. That would limit the people that could see the coordinates. Would that change the mind of the owner?

I don't think it will make any difference since he does not care who comes and goes just that the location does not get listed anywhere.

I am not really happy with that nor the fact that his logic for saying no is seriously flawed but as the landowner his word is final.

- Rev Mike

I had a pre-existing waterfall earthcache (one of the first EC's in the world), where I was forced to come up with a task when the EC's were brought back to geocaching.com. I just went with estimating the crest of the waterfall, and that's worked out pretty good. Some nice idea's here in the thread though, keep them coming. I could always change mine if I see some really good ones here.

How would you go about figuring out the cut back rate and the force flow calc?

Okay, I found some information on determining the force flow of a waterfall but I still can't find any information on erosional cutback rate. We already have one waterfall EarthCache "Natural Dam" and I don't want to repeat questions on another one. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Okay, I found some information on determining the force flow of a waterfall but I still can't find any information on erosional cutback rate. We already have one waterfall EarthCache "Natural Dam" and I don't want to repeat questions on another one. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Try searching for terms like

--estimating rate of erosion waterfall--(no quotes)

or "headward erosion rate" or for famous cases like the Salton Sea...and be sure to look at articles on gulley erosion, stream erosion, etc (Not just waterfall erosion).

http://www.sunsetcities.com/hoover-dam/hoo...-history-1.html

Ihttp://www.icrisat.org/gt-aes/TATA/docs/publications/653-2004.pdf

Are you trying to find a way to have people estimate long long it took for erosion to happen in the past, or to predict future erosion?

I thought it would be interesting to somehow have visitors use some form of measurement to determine the location of the waterfall at some future date. I have several EarthCaches I'd like to develop and two of them involve waterfalls.

I have gotten some pretty reasonable numbers for erosional rates at Rainbow Falls' in Devils Postpile NM. The age of the falls is given at the site by the NPS and the headward erosion and down cutting erosion distances have been estimated rather well.

I thought it would be interesting to somehow have visitors use some form of measurement to determine the location of the waterfall at some future date. I have several EarthCaches I'd like to develop and two of them involve waterfalls.

I have gotten some pretty reasonable numbers for erosional rates at Rainbow Falls' in Devils Postpile NM. The age of the falls is given at the site by the NPS and the headward erosion and down cutting erosion distances have been estimated rather well.

I agree with TerryDad2, if what you want is to have them predict future erosion. Just get the numbers for the previous erosion rates and ask them to use that rate to predict something about the future trend.

You could have them presume the rate would remain the same, and predict where the tables would lay in x number of years (simple math---"X rate per year = this spot on the map in Y years" or "X rate per year = this much depth in Y years").

Or--if the waterfall has reached or will soon reach a "new" layer with a different rock type, you could have them predict whether the rate will slow or speed up now.

I'm guessing you want it simple enough that it won't scare off the folks with math phobias, but entertaining enough that folks will learn something from it (even if they get the math a little bit wrong)? Either of those would do that.

Thank you . I wanted to keep it simple but interesting. I thought by having visitors calculate the waterfalls location in X number of years would help demonstrate how they form and change over time.

The location I'm looking at is Little Missouri Falls. W camp at the campground nearby several times a year and it really is a beautiful area. There is some signage there but I don't recall it mentioning the erosion rate. Is it acceptable to just make up a number for demonstration purposes? Maybe an average of other falls. I can always ask the forest geologist.

Thanks for all the help. I can't wait to get back down there.

Thank you . I wanted to keep it simple but interesting. I thought by having visitors calculate the waterfalls location in X number of years would help demonstrate how they form and change over time.

The location I'm looking at is Little Missouri Falls. W camp at the campground nearby several times a year and it really is a beautiful area. There is some signage there but I don't recall it mentioning the erosion rate. Is it acceptable to just make up a number for demonstration purposes? Maybe an average of other falls. I can always ask the forest geologist.

Thanks for all the help. I can't wait to get back down there.

I would definitely ask the forest geologist. S/He may have good suggestions for you and they usually love to talk to interested folks about their area.

I looked at some photos of the area online--beautiful!

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